fused leaf

Fused foliage-leaves are fused with the stem and, sometimes, with the opposite leaf (e. g. in Lonicera – Honeysuckle). Fused foliage-leaves may also grow down at the stem (e. g. in Echium – Viper's Bugloss and other Boraginaceae – Forget-me-Not family members or embrace it (e. g. in Bupleurum rotundifolium – Thorow-wax). Flower-leaves are referred to as fused, if they are grown together ab initio. Fused petals can be found in Gentiana – Gentian, fused sepals in Dianthus – Pink, fused carpels in Papaver – Poppy and fused stamina in Malva – Mallow. In some species the filaments are also fused with the petals (e. g. in Gentiana verna – Spring Gentian).